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水电简史

从最早期到现代

Some of the first innovations in using water for power were conceived in China during the Han Dynasty between 202 BC and 9 AD. 由垂直设置的水轮驱动的绊倒锤被用来粉碎和脱壳谷物, 打破铁矿石, 在早期的造纸术中.

的 availability of water power has long been closely associated with kick-starting economic growth. When Richard Arkwright set up Cromford Mill in 英格兰’s Derwent valley in 1771 to spin cotton and so set up one of the world’s first factory systems, 水电是他使用的能源.

轮机技术发明

Some of the key developments in hydropower technology happened in the first half of the ninteenth century. In 1827, French engineer Benoit Fourneyron developed a turbine capable of producing around 6 horsepower – the earliest version of the Fourneyron reaction turbine.

In 1849, British–American engineer James Francis developed the first modern water turbine – the Francis turbine – which remains the most widely-used water turbine in the world today. 在1870年代, 美国发明家莱斯特·艾伦·派尔顿发明了派尔顿车轮, 一种脉冲式水轮机制造技术, 他在1880年申请了专利.

进入20世纪, Austrian professor Viktor Kaplan developed the Kaplan turbine in 1913 – a propeller-type turbine with adjustable blades.

第一批水电工程

的 world’s first hydroelectric project was used to power a single lamp in the Cragside country house in Northumberland, 英格兰, in 1878. 四年后, the first plant to serve a system of private and commercial customers was opened in Wisconsin, 美国, 在十年内, 数百座水电站在运行.

在北美, 大急流城安装了水电站, 密歇根(1880), 渥太华, 安大略(1881), Dolgeville, 纽约(1881), 和尼亚加拉大瀑布, 纽约(1881). 它们被用来供应工厂和当地一些建筑的照明.

在世纪之交,这项技术在全球范围内传播开来, 1891年,德国制造了第一个三相水力发电系统, 澳大利亚在1895年在南半球建立了第一家公共工厂. In 1895, 这是当时世界上最大的水电开发项目, 爱德华·迪恩·亚当斯电厂, 是在尼亚加拉大瀑布创造的吗.

By 1900 hundreds of small hydropower plants were in operation as the emerging technology spread across the world. 在中国, in 1905, 台北附近的新店河上建了一座水电站, 装机容量500千瓦.

一个世纪的快速变化

二十世纪见证了水电设施设计的快速创新和变化.

U制定的政策.S. 美国总统富兰克林•罗斯福, 包括1930年代的新政, supported the construction of several multipurpose projects such as the Hoover and Grand Coulee dams with hydropower accounting for 40 per cent of the country’s electricity generation by 1940. [1][2]

从40年代到70年代, spurred initially by World War II followed by strong post-war economic and population growth, 国有公用事业公司在整个西欧建设了重要的水电开发项目, 以及苏联, 北美和日本.[3]

Low-cost hydropower was seen as one of the best ways to meet growing energy demand and was often tied to the development of energy-intensive industries such as aluminium smelters and steelworks.

Over the last decades of the twentieth century, Brazil and China became world leaders in hydropower. 伊泰普大坝, 横跨巴西和巴拉圭, 1984年开业,可容纳12人,600兆瓦——后来扩建并升级到14兆瓦,000兆瓦,今天的规模只有22兆瓦,中国500兆瓦三峡大坝.

连续十年的产能增长在上世纪80年代末停滞不前,90年代开始下降. This was due to increasing financial constraints and concerns expressed about the environmental and social impacts of hydropower development, 是什么让世界各地的许多项目停滞不前.[4]

国际金融机构的贷款和其他形式的支持, 最著名的是世界银行, 20世纪90年代末枯竭, 哪些因素对线上正规的买球网站中国家的水电建设造成了特别的影响.

加强对可持续性的关注

在本世纪末, 在此期间,全球对环境和社会影响的了解有所增加, 有一个重新评估水电在国家线上正规的买球网站中的价值和作用的过程. In 2000, a landmark report published by the World Commission on Dams (WCD) challenged existing practices and initiated a change in the planning and development of hydropower towards a focus on sustainability and affected communities.[5][6]

线上正规的买球网站, 1995年在联合国教科文组织的赞助下成立, 于2004年开始制定IHA可持续线上正规的买球网站指南, 考虑了WCD的战略优先事项, 以及世界银行保障政策, 国际金融公司业绩标准, 和赤道原则. 的se guidelines led to the development of the Hydropower 可持续性 Assessment Protocol (HSAP), 一个在项目生命周期的所有阶段评估项目的多方涉众工具.

这些线上正规的买球网站导致了如何最好地规划的根本转变, 开发和经营水电工程, and resulted in a growing appreciation of the technology’s role in combatting climate change, 减少贫困和促进繁荣.

水电的新时代

在21世纪初不久, 水电建设重新焕发生机, 尤其是在亚洲和南美洲.

2000年至2017年, 全球水电装机容量增加近500万千瓦, 增加了65%, 2010年以来的增长已经超过了本世纪头十年的记录.

的 significant rise in installed capacity and generation from hydropower has been driven by a variety of often interrelated factors, 值得注意的是:

新兴经济体的能源需求

线上正规的买球网站中国家, 包括巴西和中国, 需要一个负担得起的, 可靠和可持续的电力来源,支持快速的经济增长.自2000年以来, 中国装机容量翻了两番,达到341万千瓦(2017年), 占世界水电装机容量增长的一半以上.

南对南投资和贸易

的 boom in 南对南投资和贸易 (between developing countries) has become a critical source of hydropower financing and technology transfer. 2004 - 2012, South-to-South trade in 水电专业ducts and equipment increased from below 10 per cent of total global trade to nearly 50 per cent.

国家开发银行和来自中国等新兴经济体的私人投资者, 巴西和泰国已成为外国直接投资(FDI)的主要贡献者。, which in the past was largely provided by international development agencies and multilateral development banks.

作为中国政府“走出去”战略和“一带一路”倡议的一部分, Chinese companies and banks invested nearly USD 25 billion in projects overseas between 2000 and 2016 and in the process have become world leaders in hydropower development.

多边协议和目标

的 past decade has seen greater recognition of hydropower’s role in achieving internationally agreed development outcomes, such as through the Sustainable Development Goals and climate goals including the Paris Agreement which have influenced national policy targets. Small 水电专业jects (under 20 MW) in particular have benefited from the Clean Development Mechanism which was introduced under the Kyoto Protocol, 《网上正规买球网站》的前身, 鼓励清洁和可持续线上正规的买球网站.  

来自世界银行和国际金融机构的支持

Lending from the 世界银行 for hydropower development increased from a few million dollars in 1999 to nearly USD 2 billion in 2014.的 世界银行 also extended its role from a ‘primary investor’ to an important ‘convenor’ that provides assistance in technical knowledge and bringing other financiers to the table.While the monetary value of the 世界银行’s lending is a small fraction of the total amount invested in the sector each year, 世行对水电的重新承诺, along with other IFIs including the Asian Development Bank encouraged greater private sector investment and engagement.

未来

由于它的多种服务和好处, hydropower is expected to remain the world’s largest source of renewable electricity for years to come and with significant untapped hydropower potential; much of the sector’s future growth is expected to come from Africa and Asia.  

2018年,IHA在其年度 水力发电状态报告, 据报道,全球水电装机容量已上升至1,267 GW, 有记录4,2017年预计产生185太瓦时.

根据国际能源署的说法, 以实现可持续线上正规的买球网站目标中与能源有关的主要组成部分, 包括《网上正规买球网站》中关于气温低于2摄氏度的承诺, an estimated 800 GW of additional hydropower will need to be brought online over the next two decades.

查看2021年水电状况报告,了解该行业的最新情况.

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